Shoulder Range of Motion Deficits in Youth Throwers Presenting With Elbow Pain


Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) and total arc of motion difference (TAMD) have been associated with elbow injuries in throwing athletes.


Youth pitchers with elbow pain will have greater GIRD and TAMD compared with youth pitchers without elbow pain.


Cross-sectional study, Level of evidence: 3.


Glenohumeral range of motion of 25 consecutive throwing athletes presenting with elbow pain and that of a matched control group of 18 asymptomatic throwing athletes were compared. Bilateral glenohumeral internal rotation, external rotation, and horizontal adduction at 90° were measured and GIRD and TAMD were then calculated. An analysis of variance was performed to compare range of motion between throwers with and without elbow pain.


The average GIRD of the elbow pain group was 32.7° compared with 14.5° in the control group (P < 0.05). The average TAMD in the elbow pain group was 28.3° compared with 6.7° in the control group (P < 0.05). GIRD and TAMD were present in 88% (22 of 25) and 96% (24 of 25) of the elbow pain group versus 33.3% (6 of 18) and 55.6% (10 of 18) of the control group, respectively.


Compared with asymptomatic youth pitchers, those presenting with elbow pain have a statistically significant GIRD and TAMD.

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